0080 Julius Agricola (Roman) advanced across the River Clyde fighting off bands of warring Celts 0084 The Celtic tribes unite under Calgacus. He was killed (along with 10,000 men) when he fought the Roman army (under General Agricola) at Ardoch (battle of Mons Graupius). The Romans lost 340 men. 0122 Emperor Hadrian started building the Hadrian's Wall to defend the Romans from the Scots & Picts (see notes 2&3). The wall was 117 Km long, from Bowness to Wallsend (across the isthmus between the Tyne and Solway Firth. The wall was intended to hold back the Caledonians.....it never worked. 0139 Antonine's Wall built (known as Graham's Dyke). 0296 The Pictish people were first mentioned in Roman literature. The name "Pict" is said to have come either from a Latin word meaning "painted people" this is because they tattooed their bodies with patterns in different coloured vegetable dyes. 0360 Roman literature described the warring tribe based in Ireland as the "Scots" Birth of St. Ninian - first known Christian missionary in Scotland. He lived on the shores of Solway Firth. Died 0432. 0368 The Pict, Scot and Saxon tribes attacked the Romans in London and plundered their treasures. 0397 St.Ninian in Galloway. 0369 Roman General Theodosius drove the Picts and Scots out of Roman Britain. 0410 Birth of St. Patrick (Patron Saint of Ireland). Said to have been born near Kirkpatrick on the River Clyde. He went to Ireland 0432. Died 0461. The Romans leave the British Isles. 0503 The Scots left Ireland and built their kingdom of Dalriada in Argyle on the West coast & Isles of Scotland. They were Gaelic-speaking and Christians. 0518 Birth of St. Kentigern (also known as St. Mungo) - Apostle of Cumbria and founder of Glasgow. Born in Culross, Fife. Died 0613. 0563 St. Columba (0521-0597), an Irish missionary, founded a monastery on the Island of Iona - in an attempt to convert the Picts to Christianity. 0600 Battle of Catterick - 300 Edinburgh horsemen killed by the English. 0606 King Aidan of Dalriada died. 0685 Battle of Nechtansmere (Forfarshire) - The Anglo-Saxon King Brude defeated the Picts, led by Nechtan. Nechtan had rejected the Celtic Church in favour of the Roman church. This established Scotland's southern border. 0724 Nechtan - first Pictish King begins his reign. 0802 The Vikings (Danes) plundered Iona. 0843 Kenneth MacAlpin (son of Alpin) King of Scots, claimed the throne of Pictavia (see note 2) (his grandmother had been a Pictish princess) He united the Scots and Picts as one nation (known as Scotia or Alba). This was the first step in creating a united Scotland. Although never crowned, he was known as Kenneth I. He reigned 843-860. 0860 Kenneth's brother Donald becomes Donald I (reigned 0890-0863). 0863 Kenneth's son Constantine became Constantine I (reigned circa. 0863-0877). 0872 Constantine assassinated 'Run' King of Strathclyde and his brother-in-law. The southern regions of what is now Scotland, became part of Scotia/Alba 0877 Kenneth's second son, Aed (Aodh) became king (reigned 0877-0878). He was killed at Dundurn, Perthshire, by his cousin, Giric (also known as Gregory the Great) at Strathallan Giric was the son of Donald I. 0878 Eochaid (Eocha) - the son of the Ku, King of Strathclyde (son of Alpin's daughter) - became king. Reigned 0878-0889. 0889 Constantine's son Donald became Donald II (reigned 0889-900) He spent much of his reign fending off the Danish in the north (led by Sigurd the Mighty) and the Danish in the south (led by Guthrum). He died near Forres (suspected poisoning). 0900 The eldest son of Aed (Aodh), Constantine became Constantine II (reigned 0900-0943). 0937 Battle of Brananburgh - The Saxon King Athelstane defeated the Danes, Celts and Britons (Scots) near Solway. He took the title of King of all Britain. 0943 Having watched his armies being defeated and his kingdom getting smaller, Constantine II abdicated. He spent the rest of this life in a monastery. Constantine's second cousin, Malcolm (son of Donald II) became Malcolm I (reigned 0943-0954). After his return from a crusade in 0954, Malcolm's own northerly regions had revolted. They killed him at Fordoun in the Mearns in 0954. 0945 The Scots annex Cumberland and Westmorland from the English. 0954 Indulf, the son of Constantine II, became king (reigned 0954-0962). He captured the fortress at Edinburgh (Dun Eden), defeating Edwin the Anglian. 0962 Dubh (Duff), son of Malcolm I, became king (reigned 0962-0967). He was killed by Culen (Colin), Indulf's son, at Forres, Moray. 0967 Culen (Colin) became king (reigned 0967-0971). 0971 Kenneth, second son of Malcolm I's, became Kenneth II (reigned 0971-0995). 0973 Kenneth II defeated the Danish vikings. 0986 Last recorded viking raid on Iona by the Norse. 0995 Culen's son, Constantine, became Constantine III (reigned 0995-0997). The cause of his death at Rathinveramon is not known, suspected murder by Kenneth III. 0997 Dubh's (Duff) son, Kenneth, became Kenneth III (reigned 0997-1005) 1005 Kenneth II's son, Malcolm, killed Kenneth III at Monzievaird. He became Malcolm II (reigned 1005-1034). 1014 Battle of Mortlach, Banffshire - Malcolm II defeated the Danes. 1018 Malcolm II, with the help of Owen-the-Bald (King if Strathclyde), gains Lothian after defeating the Saxons at the Battle of Carham. Owen-the- Bald was killed. He struck a bargain with the English that Lothian and South of the Clyde would be his as long as he didn't change the traditions and language of the area. Thus the border between Scotland and England was formed. He did not have any sons, so he named Duncan (the son of his eldest daughter, Bethoc) to be king. To ensure that his line remained, he slaughtered all the remaining male descendants of Kenneth III. 1020 MacBeth's father, Finlaech MacRuaridh, was slain by his nephews Gillecombain & Malcolm. 1033 MacBeth was electer Mormaer of Moray 1034 Duncan I (MacCrinan), already ruler of Strathclyde, killed his grandfather Malcolm II at Glamis and became King of a (largely) united Scotland. He encouraged families of Norman origin to move from England to Scotland. He reigned 1034-1040 1040 MacBeth (a chief, born 1005) killed Duncan I in a battle at Bothnagowan and became King. It is thought that he was instrumental in the killing of his other cousin, Gillacomgain. MacBeth married Gillacomgain's widow who already had a son named Lulach. He reigned 1040-1057. 1057 Malcolm Canmore (Canmore meaning 'big head') also known as Malcolm MacDuncan (Duncan I's son), killed MacBeth at the Battle of Lumphananand. Macbeth's stepson, Lulach (aka: 'the Fool'), reigned for one year before being killed by Malcolm. Note: Lulach was the ancestor of Egidia Murray (Heiress of Culbin). It was she who married Sir Thomas de Kinnaird. Their son, Alan, became the laird of Culbin. 1058 Malcolm became King Malcolm III. Reigned 1058-1093. 1069 Malcolm III married Margaret She brought English influence to Lowland Scotland. 1072 William the Conqueror invaded Scotland. Malcolm III submitted to him at Abernethy and swore to accept him as overlord. 1087 William the Conqueror died. His son, William Rufus, invaded Cumbria and it became part of England. 1093 Battle of Alnwick - Malcolm III and his wife Margaret were killed by the English. Donald Bane (Malcolm's brother). He reigned 1093-1094. 1094 Duncan II declared himself king by hereditary right and reigned for one year before being killed. Donald Bane returned to reign (reigned 1094-1097). 1097 Edgar, born 1072, (second son of Malcolm III), after defeating Donald Bane (with the help of William II of England) began his reign. Reigned 1097-1107. Edgar started the Anglo-Norman ruling class in Scotland. 1098 Magnus Barefoot claims the Western Isles. 1107 On the death of Edgar, Scotland became disunited. Alexander I (born 1078, Edgar's brother) became King of Scots. Reigned 1107-1124. Alexander's brother, David I, became King in Lothian abd Strathclyde. 1124 Unity was restored when, on Alexander's death, David I (born 1084, Alexander's brother) became King of Scots. His reign was one of the most important in Scotland's history, extending Scottish borders to the River Tees, including all of Northumberland. Reigned 1124-1153. 1134 Province of Moray was forfeited to (annexed by) the Crown. 1138 Battle of Northallerton (Battle of the Standard) - David I was defeated and the Normans killed 10,000 Scots. He was fighting on behalf of Matilda - a claimant to the English throne, after the death of Henry I of England. 1153 Malcolm IV 'The Maiden' (born 1141, grandson of David I) began his reign. Reigned 1153-1165. 1165 William 'The Lion' (born 1143, brother of Malcolm IV) began his reign. Reigned 1165-1214. 1174 William th Lion was defeated by the English at Alnwick. The Treaty of Falaise was signed. Under this treaty, Scotland would be in debt to England for years. 1180 Province of Ross subdued by William the Lion. Inverness received Charter from William. Radulphus Ruffus, (a Norman nobleman) who was a friend of William the Lion and was also in his army, received a Charter of Kinnaird (land in the Carse of Gowrie). He is thought to be the 'father' of the Kinnaird name. He died before 1214. 1184 Richard de Kinnaird (grandson of Radulphus) received a Charter of lands of Kinnaird from King William. 1192 Scottish Church became a special 'daughter' of the Roman See. 1214 Alexander II (born 1198, son of William 'The Lion') began his reign. Reigned 1214-1249. 1222 Alexander II conquered Argyll. 1249 Alexander II died at Kerrera. Alexander III (born 1241, son of Alexander II) began his reign. Reigned 1249-1286. 1263 Battle of Largs - King Haaken of Norway and his fleet was beaten by the Scots. The Hebrides were claimed from Norway. 1274 William Wallace is born in Ellerslie. 1286 Alexander III died after a fall from his horse over a cliff. Margaret 'Maid of Norway' (born 1283, grand daughter of Alexander III, married to Erik II of Norway) reigned from 1286 to 1290. 1290 Margaret died at sea on her way to Scotland to claim the throne. On the death of Margaret, there was no obvious heir. Edward I of England was asked to decide who should rule. Robert Bruce was also a claimant. Edward chose John Balliol (born 1249, great grandson of David, Earl of Huntingdon - who was brother of William I 'The Lion'). John Balliol reigned 1292-1296. 1295 Signing of the "Auld Alliance" between Scotland and France - one of the world's oldest mutual defense treaties. 1296 Richard de Kinnaird and his son Rauf swore fealty to King Edward I of England (in Kincardine). Battle of Dunbar - Balliol defied Edward I of England. Edward invaded Scotland and defeated the Scots with 30,000 men and 5,000 cavalry. Annexation of Scotland by England. Scotland's Coronation Stone - the "Stone of Destiny" or & "Stone of Scone" - was removed to Westminster Abbey (in London) by the English King Edward I. The stone was temporarily returned to Scotland in 1950 and permanently returned in 1996. 1297 William Wallace killed the Sheriff of Lanark, Hazelrig. He defeated the English army of Edward I at Stirling Bridge and became the "Gaurdian of Scotland". 1298 Battle of Falkirk - William Wallace and his army were defeated by the army of Edward I of England. Robert Bruce knighted him at Selkirk Abbey. 1305 English capture and execute ("hanged, drawn and quartered") William Wallace. 1306 Robert Bruce murdered John 'Red' Comyn at Greyfriar Abbey, Dumfries. Robert Bruce 'The Bruce' (1274-1329, decendant of David I) led a rebellion against English rule. He was crowned Robert I at Scone. Reigned 1306-1329. 1307 Robert Bruce's (Robert I) three brothers (Alexander, Nigel & Thomas) were executed by Edward I. Robert I defeated the Earl of Pembroke at Louden Hill - his first major victory over the English. 1308 Battle of Inverurie - King Robert the Bruce defeated Comyn of Buchan and the English. 1314 Battle of Bannockburn - Robert the Bruce (with only 500 mounted men, 2,500 spearmen and 5,000 warriors) routed the English and their army of 22,000. Edward II led the English. 1315 John Balliol died. 1320 The Declaration of Arbroath was drawn up to urge the Pope to recognise Scottish independence from England. The Pope accepted the Declaration. 1326 The first Scottish Parliament met. 1328 Treaty of Northhampton - signed between Edward III and Robert I. Scotland finally became independent from England and Robert Bruce was officially recognised as it's King. 1329 Robert 'The Bruce' (Robert I) died at Cardross. It is thought that he died of leprosy. His son, David,(born 1324) became David II. He reigned 1329-1371. 1332 Battle of Dupplin - Scots (under Earl of Mar) were defeated by Edward Balliol (son of John Balliol). Balliol had the blessing of Edward III of England. Balliol was crowned at Scone. 1333 Battle of Halidon - Edward III of England defeated the Scots (under Archibald Douglas). 1334 David II was sent to France (exile) for seven years. Balliol gave homage to Edward III and gave up title to most of Southern Scotland. 1338 Battle of Otterburn - Henry Percy and the English defeated the Scots under Douglas. 1346 David II returned from France and Philip VI of France appealed for a counter invasion of England. Battle of Nevilles Cross - David II was defeated and captured by the English. 1349 The "Black Death" (Bubonic Plague) begins in Scotland. 1357 David II was released for ransom. 1371 Robert II 'Stewart' (born 1316, son of Marjory - daughter of Robert I 'The Bruce'). He reigned 1371-1390. 1379 Sir Richard de Kinnaird (grandson of Rauf de Kinnaird) had a charter of lands and barony of Kinnaird, lying in the sheriffdom of Perth. This was witnessed by John, Earl of Carrick, the King's son and Sir Richard's son, Walter, Earl of Fife. He also had a charter of confirmation of the lands of Chethynrawoch and Kinnynmond, in the barony of Slains in Aberdeenshire. 1388 Battle of Otterburn - The English, led by Harry "Hotspur" and Ralph Percy (sons of the Earl of Northumberland), were defeated by the Scots, led by Sir James Douglas (2nd Earl of Douglas). James Douglas was killed. Harry and Ralph Percy were captured. 1390 John, son of Robert, (born 1340) changed his name (due to bad omen associated with the name) to Robert III. He was physically disabled. Reigned 1390-1406. 1399 Reginald Kinnaird (younger son of Sir Richard) and wife Marjorie (daughter and heiress of John de Kircaldy of Inchture) received a Charter from King Robert III of all the lands Marjorie held of the King in the barony of Inchture (which she had previously resigned). He founded the family of Kinnaird of Inchture, Perthshire. 1402 Battle of Homildon Hill, Northunberland, England - the Scots were defeated 1406 James I (born 1394, son of Robert III) reigned from 1406 to 1437. He was captured at sea (during a truce). Robert, Duke of Albany reigned as regent (1406-1420) 1411 Battle of Harlaw - Donald, Lord of the Isles, was defeated by an army of Lowlanders. University of St. Andrews founded (influenced by the French culture, the curriculum was Paris-based). 1419 Henry V of England imposed rigid legal regulations over the use of Coat of Arms. This was due to the increase in the number of court cases relating to Coat of Arms. 1420 Murdock, Duke of Albany reigned as regent (1420-1424) 1424 James I allowed to return to scotland from captivity in England. 1427 Parliament at Inverness - James I ordered the imprisonment of fifty Highland Chiefs. 1428 William de Kynnarde (Kinnaird) was Burgess of Perth 1429 Battle of Druimnacoub - Inverness was attacked and burned by Alexander, Lord of the Isles. 1435 Andrew de Kynhade (Kinnaird) was granted a Charter of lands of Hill. 1436 Alan de Kinnaird (elder son of Sir Richard) died around this year. His son Thomas succeeded him and with his wife (the heiress of Culbin, Forres and of half the barony of Naughton, Fife) started the Culbin and Fife connection. 1437 James I was murdered by the great nobles at Perth. His son, James (born 1430) became James II. James II reigned from 1437 to 1460. 1451 University of Glasgow founded 1460 James II was killed by an exploding canon during the siege of Roxburgh (against the English). His son James III (born 1451) began his reign. Reigned 1460-1488. 1468 James III married Margaret of Denmark. 1472 St. Andrews Ace was raised to Archiepiscopal Status. 1488 James III was murdered by his son (James) during the Battle of Sauchieburn, after being accused of surrounding himself with evil advisers who encouraged him to bring Englishmen into Scottish affairs. His son James IV (born 1472) began his 25-year reign. Reigned 1488-1513. 1494 University of Aberdeen founded by historian Hector Boece (Boyce) of Panbridge. 1502 King Henry VII of England gave his daughter, Margaret Tudor, in marriage to James IV of Scotland. This gave rise to the Union of the Crowns in 1603. 1512 Under the terms of a treaty with France (the "Auld Alliance") all Scottish citizens became French citizens and vice versa. John Knox's sermon at Perth - regarded as the start of the Reformation in Scotland. 1513 Henry VIII of England rejected James IV's envoy. Battle of Flodden (Branxton) - King James IV was defeated and killed, along with much of the Scottish aristocracy by the English (led by the 75 year old Earl of Surrey). James V (born 1512, son of James IV) began his 29 year reign. Because of his age, Scotland was ruled by a regent. He reigned 1513-1542 1528 James V's personal reign began 1542 Battle of Solway Moss - James V is killed. Mary ' Queen of Scots' (born 1542, daughter of James V) began her 24 year reign. Reigned 1542-1567. She was only a week old when her reign began, with her French mother (Mary of Guise) as her regent. Mary was sent to France for safety. 1544 The "Rough Wooing" - England, pushing her territorial ambitions through a proposed marriage and alliance, was sharply rebuffed, and thus resorted to the policy known as "rough wooing" and agression towards Scotland. The Scot/English border wars and conflicts reached their height during this time. 1547 Battle of Pinkie - 15,000 English, under Duke of Somerset, were defeated by the Scots. 1557 The first Covenant (Secret Scottish Protestant group). 1558 Mary 'Queen of Scots' married Francis the Dauphin and heir to the French throne. 1559 John Knox's sermon in Perth - regarded as the start of the Reformation in Scotland. 1560 Treaty of Berwick - between Elizabeth I of England and the Scottish reformers. The Church of Scotland was founded. Treaty of Edinburgh - between England, Scotland and France. 1561 Mary returned to Scotland from France. 1563 Mary's Witchcraft Act was passed in Scotland, condeming "witches" to be burned as heretics. 1565 Mary married her cousin Lord Darnley 1567 Lord Darnley was murdered, possibly by Earl of Bothwell, who married Mary. Mary was forced to abdicate in favour of her son James (born 1566). James VI of Scotland reigned 1567-1603. He also became James I of Britain reigned 1603-1625. 1568 Battle of Langside - Moray and 45,000 men defeated Mary with only 4,500 men. Mary escaped to England to seek help from Elizabeth I of England. Elizabeth imprisons her. 1570 The Regent Moray is murdered by nobles. 1572 John Knox died. 1582 University of Edinburgh founded. 1587 Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay for treason. 1590 Patrick Kinnaird was killed by William Ogilvy (son of Patrick Ogilvy of Inchmartin). William Ogilvy received a pardon under the Great Seal in 1594. 1600 Scotland adopted the Gregorian Calendar. 1603 Elizabeth I of England died. James VI of Scotland became James I of England (the first Stuart King of England) bringing about the Union of the Crowns. 1604 The Ogilvies of Inchmartin were cautioned not to harm Patrick Kinnaird of Inchture and any others of his family. 1612 Patrick Kinnaird had letters of remission, under the Great Seal, for the slaughter of the Ogilvys and Archibald Kerr, who were killed in 1609. 1617 James (on his only return to Scotland) tactlessly lectured his countrymen on the "superiority of English civilisation". 1618 John Kinnaird resigned the lands and barony of Kinnaird into the hands of King James (I & VI). They were granted to John Livingston, one of the Gentlemen of his bedchamber. James imposed Bishops on the Presbyterian Church of Scotland in an attempt to integrate it with the Church of England. This move was deeply unpopular with the Scots. 1625 James VI, King of Great Britain died and his son Charles (born 1600) became Charles I. Although born in Scotland, Charles had no interest in the country and dealt with Scottish affairs with even less tact than his father causing discontent. Reigned 1625-1649. 1633 Charles I of England was crowned King of Scotland in Edinburgh. 1637 Charles attempted to further anglicise the Church of Scotland by introducing a new prayer book, which caused riots at St. Giles in Edinburgh. 1638 The National Covenant - Charles regarded protests against the prayer book as treason, forcing Scots to choose between their church and the King. A "Covenant", swearing to resist these changes to the death, was signed in Greyfriars Church in Edinburgh. The covenant was accepted by hundreds if thousands of Scots. 1639 Charles called a General Assembly, effectively abolishing the unpopular Scottish Bishops. First Bishops' War with England over religion ends with Pacification of Dunse. 1640 The Second Bishops' War - Charles peace collapsed. The Scots Covenanting Army (led by David Leslie) showed force by marching on Newcastle and defeated the English army. Charles agreed to pay Scotland 850 pounds per day, until a settlement was reached. 1641 Having no realistic chance of opposing the Scots, Charles negotiated a truce at Ripon. 1642 Civil war breaks out in England. The Scottish Covenanters sided with the English rebels who took power. The Earl of Montrose had sided with King Charles, so civil strife also spilled into Scotland. 1643 English Parliament signed the Solemn League and Covenant, which allied it with the Scots. The Scots provided military aid in return for 30,000 pounds. 1645 Battle of Inverlochie - James Graham, Marquis of Montrose raised the clans to fight for Charles I against Argyle. 1,500 Campbells were killed.Montrose ravaged Argyll. Battle of Philiphaugh - Montrose was defeated. 1646 Charles I gave himself up to the Scots. The Campbells massacred the Lamonts. 1647 The Scots sold Charles to the English Parliament for 400,000 pounds. He was kidnapped by the army and escaped. He made a secret treaty with the dissident Scottish nobles - the "Engagement". Charles agreed to push Scottish Presbyterianism in return for lowland Scottish support and arms. 1648 Battle of Preston - the Scots try to invade England, but were defeated by Oliver Cromwell. 1649 Charles I was tried and executed. Start of the Commonwealth era (1649-1660) - crown ceased. 1650 Charles Stuart (born 1630, son of Charles I) landed and was proclaimed Charles II. Battle of Invercharron - Marquis of Montrose landed a small army in Caithness, in an attempt to overthrow the Covenanters and the Parliamentary rule of Oliver Cromwell. The Clan Mackenzie were expected to support him, but did not. He was routed at Carbisdale. He tried to escape but was captured by the men of Neil MacLeod (11th Chief). Montrose was hanged in the Grassmarket in Edinburgh. 1651 Charles II was crowned at Scone - the last coronation in Scotland. Battle of Worcester - Charles II invaded England with a Scots army. Cromwell defeated them. Charles escaped to France. 1653 Scotland taken under the Protectorate (Cromwell). 1660 George Patrick Kinnaird (a staunch royalist) acquired all the family properties from his brother John. English Parliament invited the exiled Charles II to return as King - called the Restoration. The crown was restored to Charles II. 1661 George Patrick Kinnaird was knighted by King Charles II and made a Privy Councilor. He was created a Lord of Parliament and received the title of Lord Kinnaird of Inchture from King Charles II. 1666 Battle of Rullion Green - The Covenanters were defeated by General Dalyell. 1679 Graham of Cloverhouse was defeated by the Covenanters. 1671 Birth of Rob Roy MacGregor - notorious Jacobite Guerilla. He died in 1734. 1673 George (Lord Kinnaird) has his Coat of Arms recorded in the Lion Register. 1677 William of Orange married Mary (daughter of James, Duke of York, heir to the English throne). 1682 National Library of Scotland founded. Now one of the UK's four copyright deposit libraries. 1685 The Earl of Argyll invaded Scotland and was captured. He was executed at Edinburgh. George Patrick Kinnaird voted for the execution of Argyll. Charles II died and his brother James (born 1633, ) becomes James VII (Scotland) and II (England). He reigned 1685 to 1688. 1688 Seven lords invite William of Orange to save Britain from Catholicism. James Vii and II flees to France. William became William III and his wife Mary (Stewart) became Mary II (joint rulers). They stated that no future rulers will be or marry Roman Catholics - called the Glorious Revolution. 1689 First Lord Kinnaird of Inchture (George Patrick Kinnaird) died. His son, Patrick, became the Second Lord Kinnaird. Battle of Killiecrankie - General Hugh Mackay was defeated by Viscount Dundee (John Graham, Bonnie Dundee, Earl of Claverhouse) and his Highland army. Viscount Dundee was mortally wounded. The battle was believed to have been caused by the murder of one of the General's troopers. 1692 The massacre of Glencoe. Clan Campbell siding with King William of Orange, murdered members of Clan MacDonald. This was because the chief of MacDonald of Glencoe, arrived six days late to swear an oath of loyalty to King William. The MacDonald cheif was found guilty of treason. The Campbells swore to destroy the MacDonalds. King William fell out of favour with most of the Highlanders. 1694 Reign of William III(IV) William Paterson (a Scotsman) founded the Bank of England. He was also a leading advocate of the Darien Scheme, which is believed to have cost Scotland nearly half of the national wealth. 1695 Bank of Scotland founded (still operating today). The very fertile and well-cultivated barony of Culbin was engulfed by sand during a fierce gale. 1698 The Darien Expedition/Scheme - to compete with the English East India Trading Company, the Scots formed a similar organisation, Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies. Known in London as the Scottish East India Company, investors championed the proposal. It settled on the Isthmus of Panama (Darien) with some poor planning and when native Indians, Spaniards and disease nearly wiped them out, they called on the English fleet to rescue them. The English sent no help. Very few Scots survived. Alexander Kinnaird (last Laird of Culbin) and his sons who accompanied him, died on the Darien Scheme. 1701 Second Lord Kinnaird of Inchture (Patrick Kinnaird) died. His son Patrick became the Third Lord Kinnaird. James II died in exile. 1702 William III (of England) and II (of Scotland) - William of Orange died. Anne (daughter of James II) becomes Queen. Reigned to 1714. 1707 Act of Union was passed; Scotland formally united with England to form Great Britain. Although claimed to have been a peaceful and desired Union, it was met with riots in Edinburgh and the Highlanders never wanted Union with England. It was, in effect, "steamrollered" onto the Scots by Queen Anne. The Scottish Parliament was adjourned 25 March 1707. Patrick Kinnaird (Third Lord Kinnaird) was opposed to the Union and voted against it. 1715 Third Lord Kinnaird of Inchture (Patrick Kinnaird) died. His son, Charles, became the Fourth Lord Kinnaird. First Jacobite rebellion; Jacobites fighting for the James Stuart (James VIII), "Old Pretender" were defeated at the Battle of Sheriffmuir. 1714 Queen Anne died without leaving an heir. The throne had to go to a Protestant heir of James I. George of Hanover (a German State) became George I (born 1660). Reigned 1714-1727. His grandmother Elizabeth was the sister of George I, He was the great grandson of James I. 1725 Fourth Lord Kinnaird of Inchture (Charles Kinnaird) died. His uncle, Charles (third and youngest son of Patrick, Second Lord) became the Fifth Lord Kinnaird. 1727 George II (born 1683, son of George I) reigned 1727-1760 1743 The potato was introduced into the Scottish Highlands. 1739 Black Watch raised. The regiment was formed to "keep an eye" on the Scottish Highlands. 1744 The world's first Golf Club (the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers) was founded. 1745 Prince Charles Edward Stuart 'Bonnie Prince Charlie' (born 1720, grandson of James VII) returned to Scotland. Second Jacobite rebellion began. Scottish victory against Cope at the Battle of Prestonpans Jacobite Scottish army advanced as far south as Derby, but then retreated. 1746 Battle of Falkirk - Jacobites defeat the English government troops. Battle of Culloden - The Jacobites were routed by the government troops led by Cumberland Charles escaped to France. He died 1788. The wearing of the kilt was prohibited. 1758 Fifth Lord Kinnaird of Inchture (Charles Kinnaird) died. His marriage to Magdalene (daughter of William Brown, merchant, Edinburgh) did not produce any heirs. I was said that after 18 years of marriage, Lady Kinnaird left Drimmie House and two days later Lord Kinnaird announced to his friends that she had given birth to twin sons (Patrick and Charles). The then next heir to the Kinnaird title (Charles, his cousin) challenged this in court and asked for proof of the delivery and stated that the twins were not born of Lady Kinnaird's body. The affair was terminated by Lord Kinnaird when he declared that both children were dead. His cousin, Charles became the Sixth Lord Kinnaird. 1759 Birth of Robert Burns - writer of "Auld Lang Syne". He died 1796. 1760 George II died. George, the grand son of George II (born 1738) became George III. Reigned 1760-1820. 1767 Sixth Lord Kinnaird of Inchture (Charles Kinnaird) died. His son George became the Seventh Lord Kinnaird. 1768 The first edition of the "Encyclopedia Britannica" was published in Edinburgh by William Smellie 1770 The Clyde Trust was created to convert the River Clyde, which was at that time an insignificant river, into a major maritime thoroughfare. This required major excavation and dredging. 1771 Sir Walter Scott born in Edinburgh (1771-1832). Buried at Dryburgh Abbey. 1776 Economist, Adam Smith (born in Fife) published "The Wealth of Nations" James Watt built the separate condenser steam engine. 1777 Highland Light Infantry raised. 1778 Seaforth Highlanders raised. 1785 The Highland Clearance began. 1788 Bonnie Prince Charlie died 1793 Cameron Highlanders raised. 1794 Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders raised. Gordon Highlanders raised. 1805 Seventh Lord Kinnaird of Inchture (George Kinnaird) died. His son Charles became the Eighth Lord Kinnaird. 1807 Tenants removed to make way for sheep-farming in the Sutherland Clearance. Many were sent to America, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. 1813 David Livingstone (African explorer) born in Blantyre (1815-73). 1820 George IV (born 1772, son of George III) reigned 1820-1830. 1826 Eighth Lord Kinnaird of Inchture (Charles Kinnaird) died. George William Fox Kinnaird became the Ninth Lord Kinnaird. Scotland's first commercial railway was opened between Edinburgh and Dalkeith. 1830 Ninth Lord Kinnaird (George William Fox Kinnaird) became Grand Master of the Free Masons of Scotland for one year. William IV (born 1765, brother of George IV) reigned 1830-1837. 1831 George William Fox Kinnaird (Ninth Lord) was created Baron Rossie of Rossie. 1837 Victoria (born 1819, niece of William IV) reigned 1837-1901. 1843 Disruption of the Church of Scotland. 474 ministers signed the Deed of Demission and formed the Free Church of Scotland (the "Wee Free"). 1845 Robert William (1822-1873) patented the vulcanised rubber pneumatic tyre. The invention was abandoned because of the costs. It was re-invented by a Scottish veterinary surgeon, John Boyd Dunlop (1840-1892) in 1888. 1849 Robert William patented the fountain pen. 1850 Novelist Robert Louis Stevenson born Edinurgh (1850-94). 1854 Official ending of the Highland Clearance. 1859 The National Gallery of Scotland opened Scotland hosted the first Open Golf Championship. 1860 George Willaim Fox Kinnaird (Ninth Lord) was created Baron Kinnaird of Rossie. Scotland hosted the first Open Golf Championship. 1870 The first Rugby International was played between Scotland and England. 1872 The Scottish Football Association and Rangers Football Club were founded. 1873 Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell explains the laws of electromagnetism. 1876 Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) invented the telephone in USA. 1878 Ninth Lord Kinnaird of Inchture & Baron of Rossie (George William Fox Kinnaird) died. The Barony of Rossie became extinct (George did not have any heirs). It passed to his brother, Arthur Fitzgerald Kinnaird (Tenth Lord Kinnaird). 1879 Tay Bridge Disaster (bridge collapsed in storm taking train with it - inquiry revealed corners had been cut during construction to reduce costs). The bridge was designed by William Arrol (1839-1913). 1882 Robert Louis Stevenson published 'Treasure Island'. 1883 William Smith formed the Boys' Brigade in Glasgow. 1887 Tenth Lord Kinnaird of Inchture & Baron of Rossie (Arthur Wellesley FitzGerald Kinnaird) died. His son, Arthur FitzGerald Kinnaird became the Eleventh Lord Kinnaird 1888 Celtic Football Club was founded. 1890 Forth Rail Bridge opened, it took six years to build. The bridge was designed by William Arrol (who also designed the Tay Bridge, which collapsed). 1892 Sir James Dewar invented the Thermos flask. 1896 The Underground Railway (the "shooglie") in Glasgow was opened. It remains the only underground in Scotland. 1900 Birth of Elizabeth Lyon (Queen Elizabeth 'The Queen Mother'). Although she was born in London, she was brought up at Glamis Castle, Angus. 1915 Britain's worst train disaster near Gretna Green, south of Dumfries, killing 227 people. 1923 Eleventh Lord Kinnaird of Inchture & Baron of Rossie (Arthur FitzGerald) died. His son, Kenneth FitzGerald Kinnaird became the Twelfth Lord KInnaird Elizabeth Lyon (Queen Elizabeth 'The Queen Mother') married the Duke of York. 1926 John Logie Baird (1888-1946) invented the television. 1928 Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) discovered penicillin. 1930 St. Kilda was evacuated. Authorities decided that life was intolerable on the island. 1934 Cunard White Star liner "Queen Mary" was launched at Clydebank. 1935 Sir Robert Watson-Watt invented the radar. 1936 Edward VIII abdicated to marry Mrs. Simpson. The Duke of York (his brother) became King George VI. 1937 The largest ocean liner ever built, the Queen Elizabeth, was launched in Clydebank. 1941 Hitler's Deputy Rudolf Hess parachuted from a plane just south of Glasgow. His purpose remains one of the great enigmas of the war. 1943 More than 1000 people were killed over two days in Clydebank and Southern Glasgow during the only sustained German Luftwaffe attack on Scotland during the Second World War. 1950 Scottish Nationalists steal the "Stone of Destiny" from Westminster Abbey. This was Scotland's Coronation Stone, taken by the English in 1296. By tradition all British Monarchs have to be crowned while sitting on it. It was eventually recovered from Arbroath Abbey, although some claim this was a copy, and the original remained in Scotland. 1959 Scotland's first nuclear power station was opened at Chapelcross in Dumfriesshire. 1964 Forth Road Bridge opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. It was the longest suspension bridge in Europe. 1965 Tay Road Bridge opened - for a short time the longest bridge in the world, at just over one-mile. 1967 The Queen Elizabeth II (QE2) was launched in Clydebank. It was the last of the great Clyde-built passenger liners. 1971 Sixty-six people were killed in Scotland's worst football disaster, when part of the stadium collapsed at Ranger's ground in Glasgow after a match with Celtic. 1972 Twelfth Lord Kinnaird of Inchture & Baron of Rossie (Kenneth FitzGerald) died. His son, Graham Charles Kinnaird became the Thirteenth Lord Kinnaird. 1975 The first oil was piped ashore from the North Sea at Peterhead 1988 Scotland's worst terrorist incident occurred when a bomb exploded on board a Boeing 747 airliner on course from Frankfurt to New York. It crashed on the village of Lockerbie in Dumfrieshire, killing a total of 275 people, which represented all on board and a number on the ground. Piper Alpha oil oil production platform in the North Sea exploded, killing 187 men. 1990 Scotland defeated England to win the Rugby "Grand Slam" 1996 A gunman kills 16 five-year-old children, their teacher and himself in a Dunblane Primary School in Perthshire. This is the worst tragedy of its type in the U.K. The "Stone of Destiny", Scotland's Coronation Stone, was returned from London to Edinburgh Castle on 30 November 1996 - 700 years after being stolen by Edward I. In a fairly drab ceremony in Edinburgh (rather than it's native Scone) the stone was returned to Scotland. The fact that it was more of a loan than an actual return coupled with the ongoing pressure for greater Scottish autonomy led many to see this as an empty gesture. 1997 Thirteenth Lord Kinnaird of Inchture & Baron of Rossie (Graham Charles) died. The title died as there were no heirs. Scotland voted for devolution and having it's own Parliament, with tax raising powers.
1999 The Scottish Parliament reconvened on 12 May 1999. Notes: *1 - Early dates are circa./about *2 - Picts lived in Pictavia (north of a line from the Clyde to the Forth. *3 - Scots (originally from Ireland) lived in Dalriada (north of Strathclyde) *4 - Britons lived in Strathclyde *5 - Angles lived in Bernicia (east of Strathclyde, present day Lothian, & south to Hadrian's Wall)
This page last modified on Tuesday 23rd September, 1997.